Kuknos Network is a network of anchors that use DLT to monitor, , and record all user transactions and operations. The Network is decentralized and autonomous in that the anchors process transactions using an automatic consensus protocol.

How it Works?

Anchors are able to monitor, verify and record all transactions and operations of their users in the network. Kuknos Network also makes it possible for trusted issuers to issue a variety of tokens. Thus various assets can be tokenized using the features of the distributed ledger technology.

Send Token

A user can send a token using the wallets based on kuknos network, which are available for most devices with different operating systems. The internal services then send the desired transaction using the bridge service. The bridge server sends the transaction information to the compliance service. The compliance server identifies the recipient’s account address by identifying the Kuknos ID. Then it calls its internal services to receive information about the sender’s customer to submit to token receiver compliance systems. If the result is successful, the bridge server will create a transaction, sign it, and send it to the network. Once the transaction is confirmed on the network, the bridge server transfers the result to your services, after which the customer account is updated.

Receive Token

In order to send a token through kuknos network, the sender searches the user’s account using the federation service, then contacts the applicant’s compliance server with the requested information, and the compliance server responds with three services.

If the sender wants to check the recipient’s information, it is considered to answer which information is shared. Finally, the token acquire information will be received. The sender sends the transaction to the kuknos network.

The bridge server sends the transaction to its compliance server to see whether the same transaction has been approved or not. After that the bridge server will use its services to notify the acquire, the token receipt, and update their account.

Technical Infrastructure

The Network relies on DLT to implement the requirements set forth by the Kuknos Foundation. Kuknos is a public-permissioned network. To join, candidate anchors must meet the eligibility criteria in Paragraph 753 of this whitepaper, a customized DLT based on the Stellar solution. The overall architecture of the Network can be seen below.

In this architecture, anchor-provided applications are connected to via interface services. Together, the core nodes form the entire network.

Network Technical Components

This section presents the minimum technical components of the ecosystem. Anchors can decide to extend these components to match their business models.

1. Core Service

The core service forms the backbone of the Network. Its primary functions include managing a local copy of the ledger, communicating with other nodes, and remaining homogeneous with other nodes. Optionally, the core service can provide archiving services and participate in the consensus to record transactions. The main components of the core service are as follows:

  • SCP: The Network’s consensus protocol based on Stellar’s consensus algorithm.
  • Herder: The interface between the consensus algorithm and other core services.
  • Overlay: A component that communicates with the other nodes, transmits information, and remains informed of their statuses.
  • Ledger: Provides the set of transactions for the consensus algorithm. It also transmits the events of other components to the network. The ledger also inserts the transactions in the bucket list and archives.
  • History: Publishes the transactions and ledgers to outside storage.
  • Bucket List: A storage for verified ledgers. It also manages the disks and controls their hash values to prevent duplication.
  • Transaction: Implements the different types of transactions.

2. Interface Service

The interface service provides a set of APIs that connect user software to the Network. The service acts as an intermediary layer between core services and applications to facilitate software development on the Network.

3. Bridge Service

The bridge service is a facilitated interface to implement the compliance service. It stores the keys associated with a business account or application. Once the compliance service authorizes the transaction, it is automatically processed.

4. Compliance Service

The compliance service ensures that anchors meet the legal requirements in their respective jurisdictions and handles AML controls. In short, the service acts as an intermediary layer that checks the compliance of a transaction before authorizing it.

5. Federation Service

The federation service converts human-readable addresses into real addresses on the network. The human-readable addresses are in the user*domainname format and are mapped to key pair addresses.

6. Archiving Service

This service is an independent tool connected directly to the core archive service. It is only used to create an off-chain archive.

Addressing in Kuknos Network

Each anchor in kuknos network has an addressing mechanism called federation service which stores all the public keys and kuknos IDs of network’s users in the “Host Domain * User Name” format. This service has the ability to convert public addresses and accounting addresses to each other. Each anchor’s URL federation service is stored in a toml file and is provided securely and https. In fact, to perform any transaction, the accuracy of the account, portfo and the fact that the user has only one main account in the domain of that anchor, is checked in this way.

Kuknos Whitepaper was first published in February 2017 by members of the kuknos foundation in the Technical, Legal and Economic Committees.

The Whitepaper includes the introduction of the kuknos Foundation, the kuknos Network, and its underlying asset. In this document, the main challenges and issues such as liquidity of frozen assets, retaining the value of micro-capital, increasing transparency, immutability and availability and facilitating the process of customer authentication are examined and kuknos Network is introduced as an agile and flexible platform with the ability to offer a variety of tokens to solve this these issues.

After that, the technical components of kuknos network, economic specifications and revenue model of network members, legal specifications and structure and operating criteria have been developed.

This whitepaper is available to the public. Sending comments to the general public on wp@kuknos.org will encourage members of the Foundation and the growth and development of the kuknos Network.